The theoretical CRM framework and comparison with the artefact produced


5.1   Introduction

The researcher in this chapter intends to point out the product of the knowledge acquired from the review of past literature on the subject area combined with the analyses obtained from the findings on the data gathered along the questionnaire.

5.2 The Theoretical CRM Framework

The theoretical framework the author is to use comprises a series of three components, such as: Government, Investor, and Performance Evaluation.

These components are relied on the past frameworks from Dasai, Forrester, Payne and Frow.

In fact, the Government and the private sector should be involved for a successful use of CRM in Cameroon microfinance industry. Thus, there should be a measure of substantial exchange of responsibilities from the both sides.

In matter of fact, the Government, sets conductive business environment for the private investor in perspective to set its business.

The performance evaluation of both components acts in order to evaluate their performance and, if any, can identify it and sort it out. Using this mechanism, a competitive environment will be created and

will pull the investor to run business.

The above components are illustrated in the figure 5.1 below
The Theoretical CRM Framework
Figure 5.1: The Theoretical CRM Framework

The author intends to carry out the different components of the figure 5.1 above.

5.2.1 The Government

After carrying out the analysis in Chapter Four, the artefact is being conceptualized despite the fact that this needs some adjustment.

After analysis, for the number of employees contained in each MFI was known, 75% of MFIs consist of less than 50 numbers of employees in which only 38% of them have already applied CRM while an important proportion (51.1%) is still considering whether or not to implement it.

This high proportion might not be unconnected with the fact that most of the MFIs that is 60.4% still do not have a website.

This leads to interaction with their customers mostly through emails and media.

Consequently, from the survey, the respondents agree that the CRM will be practiced thanks to the active will of the Government in playing its own role by setting substantial elements such as social infrastructure, business regulations, financial policy, IT security, monetary, human and political aspects.

Cameroon needs an overall strategic framework and not just a list of aspirations and weaknesses.

This strategy requires a more rigorous prioritization and sequencing while competitiveness improvement demands a coordinating structure within government and a disciplined process of monitoring implementation.

To put it bluntly, the Government should create a conductive and comprehensive business environment in which there is a disciplined process on ground to monitor the implementation of policies and programs.

The Government should build a viable business environment in dropping its old systems of practicing governance in which they are to drive to economic development through policy decisions and incentives to seeing economic development as collaborative process involving the private sector, labour and Civil Society.

To do so,

  • Competitiveness should become a bottom-up process;
  • It is urgent to set a parallel or shared economic vision across stakeholders
  • It is necessary to root well national campaign to communicate competitiveness ideology and challenges to the broader sub-division of Government across the regions.
  • The private sector as facilitator should drive competitiveness improvement and ensure continuity.

5.2.2 The Private Investor/Facilitator

For the main focus of the private investor is to ensure customer satisfaction, its role is to make easy the development of the industry in providing the best service to the customers.

From the framework above (Figure 5.1), the private investor consists five key elements such as: CRM objective or strategy, Multi-channel, Customer Information and Intelligence Warehouse, IT set-up, and Employee/Management Involvement.

The researcher will analyze these components below. CRM Objective/Strategy

The Private Investor/FacilitatorFrom the analysis provided in Chapter Four, results show a close shave in the perception of the respondents about the meaning of CRM.

While 41.7% of them defined it to get a “holistic approach to managing the entire business strategy that is driven with customer relationships; 39.6% of the respondents considered it to be ‘set of technologies and methodologies for handling customer relationship’.

In matter of fact, people do not see CRM as more a technology but as a holistic tool. This was one of the reasons given by Kale (2004) why CRM programs failed.

Setting object and strategy for any CRM program depends upon the aims of the company. Employee/Management Involvement

Every employee has to be involved by the implementation of a CRM program within the company and not just commit the marketers or IT line to handle them.

Thus all employees should be customer-aware whether directly or not.

From the results in Chapter Four show that most of the employees (54.2%) will rather take-off the application of the initiative, while 31.2% of them prefers to make it cover the entire company at once.

According to Payne and Frow (2006), employees get a crucial role to play within the CRM process and implementation activities.

They also stated that an organization cannot develop and operate customer-focused systems and processes without motivated and trained employees. Multi-channel

From the results obtained in earlier Chapter Four, it has been showed that 60.4% of the respondents do not have website and this is why they can just reach-out to customer through email and advertising.

When the services rendered by the 39.6% of the respondents that have hosted a website were studied, results showed that they only use display corporate information on their company and product information (E-marketing).

Yet, the website has to be oriented more towards E-commerce services than E-marketing if only some problems can be solved by the Government in matters of security, awareness on Information Communication Technology and unstable electricity. Information Technology Set-up

The IT set-up is a part of operational CRM of the Information technology component of the framework.

It is generally the front-office system in the company.

Greenberg (2001) stated that CRM technology set-up include a front-office applications, a data depository for supporting sales and customer services and a back-office applications; all these are helpful in integrating and analyzing data. Customer Information and Intelligence Warehouse

These elements balance the IT architectural set-up of the framework as it serves as the central box and power that leads the whole system.

It is interconnected with others elements within the private Investor’s side framework.

5.2.3 The Performance Evaluation Metrics

Sanjeev et al (2008) stated three performance evaluation metrics for evaluating the performance of a CRM tool as a measure of productivity, efficiency and customer satisfaction.

In the framework showed in the figure above (5.1) as artefact, the performance evaluation metrics plays as a leveraging tool to ensure that both the Government and private investor sides according to the framework are executing their duties.

It therefore creates a forum to constantly assess how they each meet their core aim which is for customer satisfaction (private sector) and conductive business environment.

From the analysis raised in Chapter Four, results showed that 45.8% of respondents can successfully improve CRM.

The metrics was adopted from Gartner’s Group (IDM, 2002).

5.3 Comparison between Existing Frameworks and the Artefact Produced

The author found out that there is similarity in components on existing frameworks of Dasai et al, Forrester, Payne and Frow (See Figure of Chapter Two).

Using the Forrester’s framework as a standard for comparing others, it was observed that they all consist of the following elements such as Strategy, Process, Technology, and People.

The artefact will be placed side-by-side with these frameworks to show how they relate to the existing ones (Figure 5.2 below)

Artefact and the existing Frameworks

Strategy Process Technology People
Customer Satisfaction/ Business environ
IT set-up/customer information management
Government and Private
Strategy Development
Value Creation
Multi-channel Integration
Information Management
Performance Assessment

Figure 5.2:  Artefact and the existing Frameworks

5.4 Evaluating the Artefact (Pilot Testing)

After undergoing series of activities in the course of this research, the author has to evaluate the framework in taking in account its advantage(s) and limitation(s).


The artefact is different from existing frameworks for it involves the Government as one of key elements contributing to the successful use/implementation of CRM in Cameroon, This new development illustrates a consideration on the environment involved.

Thus, the framework will work if only Government can play its proper role in creating a competitive business environment.


The artefact might be subject to some adjustment due to changing nature of some variables such as business environment, socio-political and economical situation of the country.

It should be noticed that the framework of this research was designed and based on responses gathered from the respondents that must have put into consideration of the current case within the research subject area/industry when responding the questions.

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