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Discussion of teachers’ Interview, EFL students’

Discussion of teachers’ Interview, EFL students’

  1. Developing EFL students’ communication skills through collaborative visualization
  2. HADJEM LAMIA
  3. Collaborative Learning and collaborative Visualization
  4. Types of Communication Skills and Attitudes
  5. Research method and data analysis procedures
  6. EFL students’ & students’ communication skills: the findings
  7. Discussion of ELF Students’ Questionnaire Findings
  8. Discussion of teachers’ Interview, EFL students’

Discussion of teachers’ Interview, EFL students’

2. Discussion of teachers’ Interview

2. 1. Teachers’ Profile

The results indicate that the difference in teachers’ experiences with teaching English did not affect their attitudes toward adopting collaborative visualization to develop students’ communication skills.

The majority of respondents have taught English for more than 10 years and they all have faced difficulties with their students because they still have problems of communication and this is due to the lack of new strategies and techniques that cannot be implemented because of the lack of materials.

Most of them have been for a training period abroad and during their experiences; they have always encouraged new techniques to develop communication.

So, their experiences affected positively their attitudes, and this is an example of what is said in the definition of attitudes provided by Allport (1935: 810), an attitude is “A mental or neural state of readiness, organized through experience. ”

They all encouraged the implementation of collaborative visualization as a support to the traditional ways to develop students’ communication skills in English which goes with two of our hypotheses where we highlighted that teachers have positive attitudes toward the use of collaborative visualization

Discussion of ELF Students’ Questionnaire Findings

Discussion of ELF Students’ Questionnaire Findings

  1. Developing EFL students’ communication skills through collaborative visualization
  2. HADJEM LAMIA
  3. Collaborative Learning and collaborative Visualization
  4. Types of Communication Skills and Attitudes
  5. Research method and data analysis procedures
  6. EFL students’ & students’ communication skills: the findings
  7. Discussion of ELF Students’ Questionnaire Findings
  8. Discussion of teachers’ Interview, EFL students’

Discussion of ELF Students’ Questionnaire Findings

Chapter IV Discussion of the Findings

Introduction

While conducting this study, we have used two reliable tools to gather data in order to achieve our objectives and answer the research questions raised in the General Introduction, as well as, confirming or refuting the research hypotheses.

In this chapter we have discussed the findings of students’ questionnaire as a first part and the second part analyses the results of the interviews conducted with six teachers of different modules in the Department of English at Mouloud Mammeri University.

1. Discussion of Students’ Questionnaire Findings

1. 1. Students’ Attitudes towards the Use of Collaborative Visualization in the Department of English

The distributed questionnaire contains questions based on the principles of Coordination Process Theory that are introduced by Erkens (2005).

The purpose behind this research is to investigate teachers’ and students’ attitudes toward collaborative visualization in developing students’ communication skills in English at the level of the Department of English at Mouloud Mammeri University of Tizi Ouzou.

To reach this goal, a series of questions related to collaborative learning have been asked to Master One students of different options in the Department of English, University

EFL students’ & students’ communication skills the findings

EFL students’ & students’ communication skills: the findings

  1. Developing EFL students’ communication skills through collaborative visualization
  2. HADJEM LAMIA
  3. Collaborative Learning and collaborative Visualization
  4. Types of Communication Skills and Attitudes
  5. Research method and data analysis procedures
  6. EFL students’ & students’ communication skills: the findings
  7. Discussion of ELF Students’ Questionnaire Findings
  8. Discussion of teachers’ Interview, EFL students’

EFL students’ & students’ communication skills: the findings

Chapter III Presentation of the Findings

Introduction

This chapter presents the findings reached during conducting our investigation using two main tools: students’ questionnaire and teachers’ interview. The results are presented in the form of tables, diagrams and pie charts.

We have divided this part into two sections, the first deals with presenting the results of the students’ questionnaire and the second presents the findings of the teachers’ interview.

These two have been conducted with students and teachers of the Department of English at Mouloud Mammeri University of Tizi Ouzou.

3. 1. Presentation of the Results of the Students’ Questionnaire:

3. 1. 1. General Information about the Participants

Q1: What is your option?

Options Participants Percentages
Language and Communication 42 32. 31%
Didactics of Foreign Languages 22 16. 92%
Literature and Civilisation 23 17. 69%
Literature and Interdisciplinary Approaches 19 14. 62%
Comparative Literature 24 18. 46%
130 100%

Table1. Distribution of Master I Students

This table shows the different options from which we have selected our participants. The results show that the majority of them (32. 31%) study Language and Communication; (18. 46%) study comparative literature. (17. 69%) of

Research method and data analysis procedures

Research method and data analysis procedures

  1. Developing EFL students’ communication skills through collaborative visualization
  2. HADJEM LAMIA
  3. Collaborative Learning and collaborative Visualization
  4. Types of Communication Skills and Attitudes
  5. Research method and data analysis procedures
  6. EFL students’ & students’ communication skills: the findings
  7. Discussion of ELF Students’ Questionnaire Findings
  8. Discussion of teachers’ Interview, EFL students’

Research method and data analysis procedures

Chapter II Research Design

Introduction

The present chapter deals with the methods used in this research. It describes the research design of the study, the procedures of data collection and the methodology of data analysis.

This study aims at analyzing teachers’ and students’ attitudes towards collaborative visualization as a technique that can help students to develop their communication skills in English.

This chapter is composed of two sections. The first section is about data collection procedures taking into account the participants, the context where the study is conducted, the research method that is used to gather data (the mixed method), as well as data collection tools used to collect both quantitative and qualitative data (questionnaire and interview).

The second section is about the procedures of data analysis that contains the different methods used to analyse the research.

Statistics and percentages are used for the analysis of the quantitative data obtained from the students’ questionnaire; whereas, a descriptive analysis was relied on to interpret the qualitative data obtained from open- ended questions included in both the questionnaire and the interview.

1. Context of the Investigation and Population Sample

This investigation has taken

Types of Communication Skills and Attitudes

Types of Communication Skills and Attitudes

  1. Developing EFL students’ communication skills through collaborative visualization
  2. HADJEM LAMIA
  3. Collaborative Learning and collaborative Visualization
  4. Types of Communication Skills and Attitudes
  5. Research method and data analysis procedures
  6. EFL students’ & students’ communication skills: the findings
  7. Discussion of ELF Students’ Questionnaire Findings
  8. Discussion of teachers’ Interview, EFL students’

Types of Communication Skills and Attitudes

II. Communication Skills

This can be divided into three parts:

1. Definition of Communication

Generally, communication can be defined as a process of exchanging information from the person who gives the information, either through a verbal or non-verbal method, to the person who receives it. Baker (2010: 01) defines communication as “the act of transmitting and receiving information”.

In addition; it is defined as “a process of passing information and understanding from one person to another” (Davis, 1967 cited in Singla, 2008: 236).

This means that communication is transmitting understanding too, not only information. Based on these definitions, the main elements of communication can be distinguished: the sender, the information and feedback by the receiver.

The sender is the person who sends the idea to another person or to a group of people like a teacher who informs his students about the date of an exam, the information is the message or the idea being communicated and this example, it is the date of the exam, the receiver is the person or the group of people who receives the information or the message like the students in the given example and

Collaborative Learning and collaborative Visualization

Collaborative Learning and collaborative Visualization

  1. Developing EFL students’ communication skills through collaborative visualization
  2. HADJEM LAMIA
  3. Collaborative Learning and collaborative Visualization
  4. Types of Communication Skills and Attitudes
  5. Research method and data analysis procedures
  6. EFL students’ & students’ communication skills: the findings
  7. Discussion of ELF Students’ Questionnaire Findings
  8. Discussion of teachers’ Interview, EFL students’

Collaborative Learning and collaborative Visualization

Chapter I: Review of the Literature

Introduction

The current chapter reviews relevant literature on the learning, and teaching strategies of collaborative visualization, collaborative learning, and communication skills.

This is for the sake of setting a ground that allows us to analyse the attitudes that are held by both teachers and students in the Department of English at Mouloud Mammeri University of Tizi Ouzou towards collaborative visualization (CV) in developing communication skills (CS) in English. This chapter is composed of seven basic parts.

The first part is devoted to collaborative visualization. We start this section with several definitions proposed by authors to collaborative learning (CL); then, we move to a brief literature review of collaborative visualization.

The second section deals with the importance of collaborative visualization in the process of learning. We define, in the third position, visual aids and explain their types.

Afterwards, communication skills are defined and the different types which might be involved in the collaborative visualization are explained in the fourth part. The fifth part reviews the relationship between collaborative visualization and communication skills from a constructivist approach.

The concept of attitude and its definition are dealt with at

Developing EFL students’ communication skills through collaborative visualization

Developing EFL students’ communication skills through collaborative visualization

  1. Developing EFL students’ communication skills through collaborative visualization
  2. HADJEM LAMIA
  3. Collaborative Learning and collaborative Visualization
  4. Types of Communication Skills and Attitudes
  5. Research method and data analysis procedures
  6. EFL students’ & students’ communication skills: the findings
  7. Discussion of ELF Students’ Questionnaire Findings
  8. Discussion of teachers’ Interview, EFL students’

Developing EFL students’ communication skills through collaborative visualization

Mouloud Mammeri University of Tizi-Ouzou

Faculty of Letters and Languages

Department of English

People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria

Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research

Domain: Foreign Languages

Branch: English Language

Option: Language and Communication

Dissertation Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master in EnglishDeveloping EFL students’ communication skills through collaborative visualizationDeveloping EFL Students’ Communication Skills through Collaborative Visualization:

An Analysis of Teachers and Master One Students’ Attitudes in the Department of English at Mouloud Mammeri University of Tizi-Ouzou

Presented by:

HADJEM LAMIA

HAMMAR THILELLI

Board of Examiners:

Chair: Dr. YASSINE Souryana (MCA) Mouloud Mammeri University of Tizi-Ouzou.

Supervisor: Mr. AOUINE Akli (MAA) Mouloud Mammeri University of Tizi-Ouzou.

Co-Supervisor: Mr. CHERIFI Ahcene (MAA) Mouloud Mammeri University of Tizi-Ouzou.

Examiner: Mr. CHETOUANE Madjid (MAA) Mouloud Mammeri University of Tizi-Ouzou.

Academic year:

2018/2019

Dedications & Acknowledgments

Abstract

The present study is conducted to investigate teachers’ and students’ attitudes toward promoting EFL students’ communication skills through collaborative visualization.

This research has two main objectives, which consist in identifying Master one student’s and their teachers’ attitudes towards the use of collaborative visualization in the learning process to promote students’ communication skills.

In addition to

Nature of Interaction: intellectual, business, personal

  1. Proximics: Evidence from Moroccan culture
  2. Types of Distances in Interaction – Proximics
  3. Intimate Distance, Definition of The Inimate Distance
  4. Factors in Distance Variation – Moroccan culture
  5. Social Status of Individuals – Moroccan culture
  6. Nature of Interaction: intellectual, business, personal

Nature of Interaction (2-3-) – Part Two:

A third factor that determines the change of distance is the nature of the interaction: Is it an intellectual, a business, or personal interaction ? This is the question we would like to consider now.

2-3-1-Intellectual Interaction

An intellectual interaction mainly involves a formal distance. The relationship between the, interacting individuals may be either a power relationship or an intimate relationship.

For instance, these interacting individuals in the present case are both students, or both teachers.

Most of these informants claim to be formal in an intellectual interaction because the nature of such interaction does not allow the use of a casual or an intimate distance: a student informant says that it will be inappropriate to deal with an intellectual topic and use an intimate distance, he adds that though his interlocutor may be of an equal status, he shifts to a formal distance when the topic of conversation is intellectual.

Four pupil informants confirm that when they talk to

Social Status of Individuals – Moroccan culture

  1. Proximics: Evidence from Moroccan culture
  2. Types of Distances in Interaction – Proximics
  3. Intimate Distance, Definition of The Inimate Distance
  4. Factors in Distance Variation – Moroccan culture
  5. Social Status of Individuals – Moroccan culture
  6. Nature of Interaction: intellectual, business, personal

 

Proximics: Evidence from Moroccan culture
Part Two: 2-2-Social Status of Individuals

Another equally important factor that affects distance and causes its variation is the social status of the interacting individuals: the fact that an individual , has a certain rank entitles him to be treated in a special way by his subordinates, his equals, and his superiors for choice of our verbal and non verbal channels of communication depends on the relation ship we have with our interlocutor in this regard Hudson says” mast particularly the power and solidarity manifested in that relation ship” (p: 24).

2-2-1. A Superior.
A superior interlocutor is one with a higher social status than his addresses. A teacher is superior to his students or pupils, he can in turn be inferior to headmaster or a dean in an interaction. The relationship superior speaker has with his  inferior interlocutor is a relationship: The inferior interacting person is superior to watch for his verbal as well as his non verbal behaviour when interacting with his superior. He should show formality by keeping a formal distance from his superior

Factors in Distance Variation – Moroccan culture

  1. Proximics: Evidence from Moroccan culture
  2. Types of Distances in Interaction – Proximics
  3. Intimate Distance, Definition of The Inimate Distance
  4. Factors in Distance Variation – Moroccan culture
  5. Social Status of Individuals – Moroccan culture
  6. Nature of Interaction: intellectual, business, personal

 

Proximics: Evidence from Moroccan culture
Part Two: 2- Factors in Distance Variation

The distance one takes from his interlocutor in interaction may vary according to factors relating to the interacting individual, the nature of his sex, his social status whether he is subordinate, equal, or superior to his interlocutor; and finally to the nature of the interaction itself that is: whether it is intellectual, business or personal. The degree of variation shows how the interacting person conceives of distance, for his behaviour will be regarded improper if he fails to maintain the appropriate space to the situation.

2-1-Sex of Individuals
The informants responses reveal that sex has a great influence on the spacing pattern in the Moroccan culture.
In public interaction, most of the informants favour with drawing to a less close distance when the interlocutor is from the opposite sex. For instance, when the interlocutor is a female, the male speaker controls his verbal as well as his non-verbal behaviour, the distance he takes is not too intimate, nor does he excessively use touch; otherwise his behaviour will be disapproved of  by society because it is too intimate. Both student and pupil informants affirm that distance does change according to the nature of

Intimate Distance, Definition of The Inimate Distance

  1. Proximics: Evidence from Moroccan culture
  2. Types of Distances in Interaction – Proximics
  3. Intimate Distance, Definition of The Inimate Distance
  4. Factors in Distance Variation – Moroccan culture
  5. Social Status of Individuals – Moroccan culture
  6. Nature of Interaction: intellectual, business, personal

 

Types of Distances in Interaction- Part 1:

1-1-Intimate Distance

Before given an explanation to this point, we can start by asking this question : Is intimacy restricted to courting couples, or does it extend to other relationships ?

This is the question that would be considered in terms of Moroccan culture.

Out of 24 male and female high school teacher informants, 18 say that intimacy means friendship. The 6 others relate it only to marital relationship. In this context Hall (1966) says the following “love making wrestling” (p. 116). Friends and relatives can stand one foot distance from each other in their interaction.

One male student from English department informants Said that in general his behaviour tends it be warm and relaxed when interacting with his intimate friends: Not only does he stand close to his friend but also touches him. Two other female student informants mention that they walk hand in hand in the street and that they can lean on each others shoulders while talking. However, it must be pointed out that this behaviour is not considered inappropriate

Types of Distances in Interaction – Proximics

  1. Proximics: Evidence from Moroccan culture
  2. Types of Distances in Interaction – Proximics
  3. Intimate Distance, Definition of The Inimate Distance
  4. Factors in Distance Variation – Moroccan culture
  5. Social Status of Individuals – Moroccan culture
  6. Nature of Interaction: intellectual, business, personal

 

Proximics: Evidence from Moroccan culture
Part 1:
1-Types of Distances in Interaction

Speech does not constitute the only channel through which human communication in face-to-face interaction is carried out. The non-verbal medium like the verbal medium plays an important role in the daily interaction of the human beings.

As Wilfred d’souza says:
In a normal two person conversation the verbal band (…) carries less than 35% of the social meaning of the situation –more than 65% is transmitted via non-verbal bands. These non-verbal bands relate to how people more, gesture and handle special relationship (Quoted in Hodge 1981; 43).

There are many aspects of non-verbal behaviour through which different messages are communicated in interaction ; these aspects include the way people orient their bodies in conversation, the way they use gestures and eye gestures and eye contact in this regard, Hudson (1980) says that “the distance one person stands

Proximics: Evidence from Moroccan culture

  1. Proximics: Evidence from Moroccan culture
  2. Types of Distances in Interaction – Proximics
  3. Intimate Distance, Definition of The Inimate Distance
  4. Factors in Distance Variation – Moroccan culture
  5. Social Status of Individuals – Moroccan culture
  6. Nature of Interaction: intellectual, business, personal

 

Faculty of Letters and Human Sciences

Department of English
Option: Linguistics

A Monograph submitted to the English Department in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for B.A Degree
in English
Proximics: Evidence from Moroccan culture
Supervisor: Mr.Mohamed NFISSI
Submitted by : Aicha A.
Academic Year: 2004-2005

Content:
Introduction
Part one
1-Types of Distances in Interaction
1-1-Intimate Distance
1-2-Casual Distance.
1-3-Fromal Distance
Part two
2-Factors in Distance Variation
2-1-Sex of Individuals
2-2-Social Status of Individual
2-2-1- A Superior
2-2-2- A Subordinate

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