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Arab women in cinema

  1. Image of Arab women in the eastern print and visual media
  2. Dr. Lalla Aicha Sidi Hamou
  3. Behaviourist theory and Cultivation theory
  4. Interpreting the media, Image of Arab women
  5. Critical analysis of the media: manipulative & hegemonic
  6. Women and media
  7. Arab women in written media : Newspapers
  8. Images of Arab women in magazines
  9. Arab women in visual media: Television
  10. Arab women in the internet
  11. Images of Arab women in advertising
  12. Arab women in cinema

4.2 Cinema

This section is a continuation to the previous one but this time the aim is show the representation of Arab women in cinema. But before going deep into this, it would be useful to have an idea first about cinema itself and its relation to women. Cinema can be regarded as an industrialized art that is used to generate money, like all kinds of media. Geoffrey Nowell-Smith defined cinema in the introduction of his book The Oxford History of World Cinema (1996) saying alt is the great unresolved equation between art and industry. It was the first, and is arguably still the greatest, of the industrialized art forms which have dominated the cultural life of the twentieth centurya (Smith, 1996, p. xix). This shows that cinema has penetrated people as lives and became a part of them that is not easy to overcome.

In its beginnings, cinema was found only in a handful of countries such as France, USA, Germany, and Britain, and then it knew its way outside,

Images of Arab women in advertising

  1. Image of Arab women in the eastern print and visual media
  2. Dr. Lalla Aicha Sidi Hamou
  3. Behaviourist theory and Cultivation theory
  4. Interpreting the media, Image of Arab women
  5. Critical analysis of the media: manipulative & hegemonic
  6. Women and media
  7. Arab women in written media : Newspapers
  8. Images of Arab women in magazines
  9. Arab women in visual media: Television
  10. Arab women in the internet
  11. Images of Arab women in advertising
  12. Arab women in cinema

Chapter 4 Case study

In the last chapter, the portrayal of Arab women in the Arab media has been put under full light, examining both the written and the visual format.

In this chapter, however, the focus will be on examples from each so as to prove what has been stated above but the focus will be limited to the Moroccan context.

Concerning the written media, the focus will be on advertisements since they are found in the written media, but when it comes to the visual one, the example would be a movie to be analyzed since movies are also found in the internet as they are available on television.

The focus here will be on the Moroccan context.

4.1 Advertisements

One of the functions of advertisements is to unveil the outside world for the women who see in them how other women live their lives in an idealized world, even though the scenes depicted are not necessarily the representatives of women as reality.

Through these images advertisers not only

Arab women in the internet

  1. Image of Arab women in the eastern print and visual media
  2. Dr. Lalla Aicha Sidi Hamou
  3. Behaviourist theory and Cultivation theory
  4. Interpreting the media, Image of Arab women
  5. Critical analysis of the media: manipulative & hegemonic
  6. Women and media
  7. Arab women in written media : Newspapers
  8. Images of Arab women in magazines
  9. Arab women in visual media: Television
  10. Arab women in the internet
  11. Images of Arab women in advertising
  12. Arab women in cinema

3.2.2 The internet

Before the advent of the Internet, the communication networks were very much limited, there were only phone lines or sent letters, but thanks to this medium of communication, things have become easier. All what people need is to sit in front of a computer and get connected which will allow them to meet people all around the world, no matter how much they are far away. The Internet is argued to be dangerous; but in fact it has its positive and negative sides just like any other aspect of life.

The Internet use has become popular in the beginning of 1990as, since then; it has had a great impact on both people and cultures. According to Media Virus (1996) the Internet is growing bigger and bigger and it has gone beyond our ability. Rushkoff writes; aThe computer net is an ever- expending new territory and it is growing faster than our ability to document or civilize ita (Rushkoff, 1996, p.235). This means that the Internet is becoming nowadays

Arab women in visual media: Television

  1. Image of Arab women in the eastern print and visual media
  2. Dr. Lalla Aicha Sidi Hamou
  3. Behaviourist theory and Cultivation theory
  4. Interpreting the media, Image of Arab women
  5. Critical analysis of the media: manipulative & hegemonic
  6. Women and media
  7. Arab women in written media : Newspapers
  8. Images of Arab women in magazines
  9. Arab women in visual media: Television
  10. Arab women in the internet
  11. Images of Arab women in advertising
  12. Arab women in cinema

3.2 Arab women in visual media

3.2.1 Television

Television is one of media types that is worth studying as a result of its style, scope and insights. It is a part of our everyday life, a very important tool that is growing in importance every single day. Television is considered as a danger by Pierre Bourdieu in his book On Television when he says: al think that television poses a serious danger for all the various areas of cultural production- for art, for literature, for science, for philosophy, and for lawa (Bourdieu, 1998 p.ll). This means that television may be a bless and a curse in the same time; it helps the same way it harms individuals.

Television has come out when it was needed, when it was a necessity in a time social as well as political changes have taken place. It was then a means through which news are transmitted to people. Raymond Williams writes in his Television: Technology and Cultural reform concerning the advent of television aTelevision emerged,

Images of Arab women in magazines

  1. Image of Arab women in the eastern print and visual media
  2. Dr. Lalla Aicha Sidi Hamou
  3. Behaviourist theory and Cultivation theory
  4. Interpreting the media, Image of Arab women
  5. Critical analysis of the media: manipulative & hegemonic
  6. Women and media
  7. Arab women in written media : Newspapers
  8. Images of Arab women in magazines
  9. Arab women in visual media: Television
  10. Arab women in the internet
  11. Images of Arab women in advertising
  12. Arab women in cinema

3.1.2 Magazines

The secret of the popularity of womenas magazines lay in their coverage of news as well as entertainment. They are normally directed to women since they call themselves womenas magazines; thus they define their readers as women. In most cases these magazines concentrate on issues such as femininity, beauty, family and children. This focus on femininity has made womenas magazines different from other magazines and thus unique in their nature.

Different scholars in the field of media have wondered what the appropriate way of studying women magazines is. Is it to consider them as texts? aMany have focused on womenas magazines at a textual levela (Yeats, 2003, p.6), or in relation to the readers? aOthers have argued that womenas magazines can be understood by exploring the ways in which their readers consume thema (Yeats, 2003, p.6), or in relation to their production which is the minority aA few studies have maintained that womenas magazines are best approached through an analysis of their conditions of production (Yeats, 2003, p.6). All

Arab women in written media : Newspapers

  1. Image of Arab women in the eastern print and visual media
  2. Dr. Lalla Aicha Sidi Hamou
  3. Behaviourist theory and Cultivation theory
  4. Interpreting the media, Image of Arab women
  5. Critical analysis of the media: manipulative & hegemonic
  6. Women and media
  7. Arab women in written media : Newspapers
  8. Images of Arab women in magazines
  9. Arab women in visual media: Television
  10. Arab women in the internet
  11. Images of Arab women in advertising
  12. Arab women in cinema

3.1 Arab women in written media

When talking about media, there are things to be considered like for example which kind of media is referred to. Katz has explained it in her book The Media Handbook saying that aThe world of media can be very broadly divided into two types- print and electronic. Print media include magazines and newspapers, whereas electronic media cover radio, television and the interneta (Katz, 2008, p.2). In other words, media can be categorized into two categories; the written media which has to do with published text that she referred to as aprint mediaa and the visual one that has to do with visual images including television and the internet referred to by Katz as aelectronic mediaa.

The relation of Arab women to the Arab media has been under study for many years as a result of mostly its negativity and its power to affect them in real life. Although the situation is positively changing, the movement in this direction is still quite slow. Media can be

Women and media

  1. Image of Arab women in the eastern print and visual media
  2. Dr. Lalla Aicha Sidi Hamou
  3. Behaviourist theory and Cultivation theory
  4. Interpreting the media, Image of Arab women
  5. Critical analysis of the media: manipulative & hegemonic
  6. Women and media
  7. Arab women in written media : Newspapers
  8. Images of Arab women in magazines
  9. Arab women in visual media: Television
  10. Arab women in the internet
  11. Images of Arab women in advertising
  12. Arab women in cinema

Chapter 3 Women and media

For many years, the images of women in the media have been a burning issue and a tropical subject to study. Women have been given a distorted presentation in both advertisements and television serials; either they are shown as a sexual object or as ignorant mothers and housewives. Such description enforces the stereotypical views men have about women and thus keep them always in a subjugated position. According to the report of the Committee of Equal Opportunities for Women and Men, women image in media is negative indeed since they are rarely shown in appropriate position. The report states aThey are shown at work in only 8

One of the controversial issues that are nowadays debated especially among feminists and womenas right advocates is the portrayal of women in media, how they are represented and what to be done about such a negative representation. The relation between media and women has never been good, generally speaking, as it is going to be shown later, and this

Critical analysis of the media: manipulative & hegemonic

  1. Image of Arab women in the eastern print and visual media
  2. Dr. Lalla Aicha Sidi Hamou
  3. Behaviourist theory and Cultivation theory
  4. Interpreting the media, Image of Arab women
  5. Critical analysis of the media: manipulative & hegemonic
  6. Women and media
  7. Arab women in written media : Newspapers
  8. Images of Arab women in magazines
  9. Arab women in visual media: Television
  10. Arab women in the internet
  11. Images of Arab women in advertising
  12. Arab women in cinema

2.3 Critical analysis of the media

The critical analysis of the media approach is concerned with the way the mass media and the social structure go hand in hand. It puts emphasis on how the messages transmitted by the media are being received and how they were produced. The prior aim is not to understand these produced images or to locate the effect of the media but rather to look at the mass media through certain critical ideologies. Critical studies see the mass media as part of the processes of control and as reproducing the present situation through the constant reassertion of dominant ideology.

The critical analysis focus on the media content to look to what extend there is bias in what is being presented. It can be used to indicate the presence of a racist massages, for example in some TV programs the image of black people is represented negatively as trouble makers. Harvard and MacDonald (1993) explained the situation saying aBlack people are usually treated as a problem by

Interpreting the media, Image of Arab women

  1. Image of Arab women in the eastern print and visual media
  2. Dr. Lalla Aicha Sidi Hamou
  3. Behaviourist theory and Cultivation theory
  4. Interpreting the media, Image of Arab women
  5. Critical analysis of the media: manipulative & hegemonic
  6. Women and media
  7. Arab women in written media : Newspapers
  8. Images of Arab women in magazines
  9. Arab women in visual media: Television
  10. Arab women in the internet
  11. Images of Arab women in advertising
  12. Arab women in cinema

2.2 Interpreting the media

If analyzing the images and the concepts one has in mind, he/ she would come quickly to the conclusion that they correspond to what he /she sees through the media. Most of them are acquired and shaped by the magazines we read or the movies or advertisements we watch. What is being transmitted then is much more complicated that needs to be interpreted in the right way for it is a discourse which contains specific cultural and social meanings. It is a discourse rather than mere images.

In this respect, interpreting mass media is an approach to question what the audience have understood and what lessons they have learned rather than emphasizing the effective side of it. Such interpretation allows the viewer to catch the real and the hidden meanings behind these images as not to be misled into other directions. These approaches rely on a direct observations and analysis to dig out the underlying meanings. It does help the viewer to have a critical mind that

Behaviourist theory and Cultivation theory

  1. Image of Arab women in the eastern print and visual media
  2. Dr. Lalla Aicha Sidi Hamou
  3. Behaviourist theory and Cultivation theory
  4. Interpreting the media, Image of Arab women
  5. Critical analysis of the media: manipulative & hegemonic
  6. Women and media
  7. Arab women in written media : Newspapers
  8. Images of Arab women in magazines
  9. Arab women in visual media: Television
  10. Arab women in the internet
  11. Images of Arab women in advertising
  12. Arab women in cinema

Chapter 2

Media analysis

Media study involves a wide range of research techniques like for example social surveys, observations and most importantly the analysis of its content. As stated earlier, media is something we are all exposed to; we know it, and we make use of it that is exactly why it is worth studying. The idea has been brilliantly put by Karen Ross and Carolyn Byerely in their book Women and Media: International perspectives. They argue aWe live in a mediated world. Even remote geographic areas are infiltrated by advertising newspapers, magazines, radios, televisions, music, films, and other print and broadcast mediaa ( Ross Byerely, 2006, p.l). Media then has become a necessity.

The study of the media involves enormous perspectives and aims which is a good point since it gives researchers the opportunity to tackle such an issue from different angles and hopefully introduce different methodologies and mechanisms by which it can be understood and interpreted in different ways. Harvard and MacDonald defined mass media as follows:

When we

Image of Arab women in the eastern print and visual media

Image of Arab women in the eastern print and visual media

  1. Image of Arab women in the eastern print and visual media
  2. Dr. Lalla Aicha Sidi Hamou
  3. Behaviourist theory and Cultivation theory
  4. Interpreting the media, Image of Arab women
  5. Critical analysis of the media: manipulative & hegemonic
  6. Women and media
  7. Arab women in written media : Newspapers
  8. Images of Arab women in magazines
  9. Arab women in visual media: Television
  10. Arab women in the internet
  11. Images of Arab women in advertising
  12. Arab women in cinema

Image of Arab women in The Eastern print And Visual media

Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University
Faculty of Letters and Human Sciences Dhar Mehraz-Fez
Department of English
Master program

Image of Arab women in the eastern print and visual media
Image of Arab women in The Eastern print And Visual media

MINT CHEIKH Lalla-aicha

Supervised by : Professor K. Sandy

2008-2009

The power of the media to make and unmake the image of women, to hasten or retard the progress of women in society, cannot be denied or underestimated.
Molara Ogundipe- Leslie.

This work is dedicated to people who made me who I am:

My mother: for installing values in me without them I would not be able to have made it. My father: for believing in me and never doing anything but nurturing my inspiration.
My father: for believing in me and never doing anything but nurturing my inspiration. My grandmother: for everything you have done to me and for your impact in my life.
The work is dedicated to the rest of my family members and friends, without forgetting my

Discussion of teachers’ Interview, EFL students’

Discussion of teachers’ Interview, EFL students’

  1. Developing EFL students’ communication skills through collaborative visualization
  2. HADJEM LAMIA
  3. Collaborative Learning and collaborative Visualization
  4. Types of Communication Skills and Attitudes
  5. Research method and data analysis procedures
  6. EFL students’ & students’ communication skills: the findings
  7. Discussion of ELF Students’ Questionnaire Findings
  8. Discussion of teachers’ Interview, EFL students’

Discussion of teachers’ Interview, EFL students’

2. Discussion of teachers’ Interview

2. 1. Teachers’ Profile

The results indicate that the difference in teachers’ experiences with teaching English did not affect their attitudes toward adopting collaborative visualization to develop students’ communication skills.

The majority of respondents have taught English for more than 10 years and they all have faced difficulties with their students because they still have problems of communication and this is due to the lack of new strategies and techniques that cannot be implemented because of the lack of materials.

Most of them have been for a training period abroad and during their experiences; they have always encouraged new techniques to develop communication.

So, their experiences affected positively their attitudes, and this is an example of what is said in the definition of attitudes provided by Allport (1935: 810), an attitude is “A mental or neural state of readiness, organized through experience. ”

They all encouraged the implementation of collaborative visualization as a support to the traditional ways to develop students’ communication skills in English which goes with two of our hypotheses where we highlighted that teachers have positive attitudes toward the use of collaborative visualization

Discussion of ELF Students’ Questionnaire Findings

Discussion of ELF Students’ Questionnaire Findings

  1. Developing EFL students’ communication skills through collaborative visualization
  2. HADJEM LAMIA
  3. Collaborative Learning and collaborative Visualization
  4. Types of Communication Skills and Attitudes
  5. Research method and data analysis procedures
  6. EFL students’ & students’ communication skills: the findings
  7. Discussion of ELF Students’ Questionnaire Findings
  8. Discussion of teachers’ Interview, EFL students’

Discussion of ELF Students’ Questionnaire Findings

Chapter IV Discussion of the Findings

Introduction

While conducting this study, we have used two reliable tools to gather data in order to achieve our objectives and answer the research questions raised in the General Introduction, as well as, confirming or refuting the research hypotheses.

In this chapter we have discussed the findings of students’ questionnaire as a first part and the second part analyses the results of the interviews conducted with six teachers of different modules in the Department of English at Mouloud Mammeri University.

1. Discussion of Students’ Questionnaire Findings

1. 1. Students’ Attitudes towards the Use of Collaborative Visualization in the Department of English

The distributed questionnaire contains questions based on the principles of Coordination Process Theory that are introduced by Erkens (2005).

The purpose behind this research is to investigate teachers’ and students’ attitudes toward collaborative visualization in developing students’ communication skills in English at the level of the Department of English at Mouloud Mammeri University of Tizi Ouzou.

To reach this goal, a series of questions related to collaborative learning have been asked to Master One students of different options in the Department of English, University

EFL students’ & students’ communication skills the findings

EFL students’ & students’ communication skills: the findings

  1. Developing EFL students’ communication skills through collaborative visualization
  2. HADJEM LAMIA
  3. Collaborative Learning and collaborative Visualization
  4. Types of Communication Skills and Attitudes
  5. Research method and data analysis procedures
  6. EFL students’ & students’ communication skills: the findings
  7. Discussion of ELF Students’ Questionnaire Findings
  8. Discussion of teachers’ Interview, EFL students’

EFL students’ & students’ communication skills: the findings

Chapter III Presentation of the Findings

Introduction

This chapter presents the findings reached during conducting our investigation using two main tools: students’ questionnaire and teachers’ interview. The results are presented in the form of tables, diagrams and pie charts.

We have divided this part into two sections, the first deals with presenting the results of the students’ questionnaire and the second presents the findings of the teachers’ interview.

These two have been conducted with students and teachers of the Department of English at Mouloud Mammeri University of Tizi Ouzou.

3. 1. Presentation of the Results of the Students’ Questionnaire:

3. 1. 1. General Information about the Participants

Q1: What is your option?

Options Participants Percentages
Language and Communication 42 32. 31%
Didactics of Foreign Languages 22 16. 92%
Literature and Civilisation 23 17. 69%
Literature and Interdisciplinary Approaches 19 14. 62%
Comparative Literature 24 18. 46%
130 100%

Table1. Distribution of Master I Students

This table shows the different options from which we have selected our participants. The results show that the majority of them (32. 31%) study Language and Communication; (18. 46%) study comparative literature. (17. 69%) of

Research method and data analysis procedures

Research method and data analysis procedures

  1. Developing EFL students’ communication skills through collaborative visualization
  2. HADJEM LAMIA
  3. Collaborative Learning and collaborative Visualization
  4. Types of Communication Skills and Attitudes
  5. Research method and data analysis procedures
  6. EFL students’ & students’ communication skills: the findings
  7. Discussion of ELF Students’ Questionnaire Findings
  8. Discussion of teachers’ Interview, EFL students’

Research method and data analysis procedures

Chapter II Research Design

Introduction

The present chapter deals with the methods used in this research. It describes the research design of the study, the procedures of data collection and the methodology of data analysis.

This study aims at analyzing teachers’ and students’ attitudes towards collaborative visualization as a technique that can help students to develop their communication skills in English.

This chapter is composed of two sections. The first section is about data collection procedures taking into account the participants, the context where the study is conducted, the research method that is used to gather data (the mixed method), as well as data collection tools used to collect both quantitative and qualitative data (questionnaire and interview).

The second section is about the procedures of data analysis that contains the different methods used to analyse the research.

Statistics and percentages are used for the analysis of the quantitative data obtained from the students’ questionnaire; whereas, a descriptive analysis was relied on to interpret the qualitative data obtained from open- ended questions included in both the questionnaire and the interview.

1. Context of the Investigation and Population Sample

This investigation has taken

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